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Electrical design of bulk grain storage silos

Apr.09, 2022Keywords:design of silo, bulk grain storage, grain warehouse

Electrical design of bulk grain storage silos

For grain safety, we need use chemicals (such as aluminium phosphide) which are corrosive and have a serious impact on electrical equipment inside silo in humid environment to kill insects. Also, dust produced by grain and feeding and discharging operations may cause short circuit and poor contact of electrical switches and detecting elements, as well as grain silo explosions. So grain storage warehouse shall be moisture-proof, dust-proof and explosion-proof so as to ensure the safety and reliability of system.

1. Power distribution system

Power distribution system determines the normal operation of grain silo. There are two kinds of electric equipment in grain silo: fixed equipment and mobile equipment. Fixed electric equipment includes lighting system, axial fan system, belt conveying system, aeration system, grain cooling system and grain condition monitoring system. Mobile equipment includes mobile silo feeding system, mobile belt conveyor and mobile grain bag filling machine.

The determination of electrical load depends on electrical equipment. The operation conditions of electrical equipment shall be considered first before the design of electrical system, also, electrical system shall be designed on the basis of safety and the largest electrical energy supply shall be determined according to electrical equipment, operation time of different equipment and operation time intervals with a certain margin is reserved.

Cables of grain silo shall be highly safe, so the types and cross-sectional area of cables shall be determined after detailed calculation. Generally, the cross-sectional area of wires has a certain margin, cables laid on ground are PVC insulated and cables laid under ground have a steel pipe jacket.

2. Lighting system inside grain warehouse

Effective lighting system helps to ensure the efficiency and safety of works. Lighting facilities shall be dust-proof and explosion-proof with a protection degree of IP65. And the shells of these facilities is cast with aluminum alloy and sprayed with plastics. Also, they are equipped with dust covers to prevent dust accumulation and explosion.

The lighting lines inside the grain warehouse should be jacketed with steel pipes. The joints of steel pipes should be iron transition boxes, not PVC. At the same time, nuts should also be made of iron.

The structure of grain warehouse determines that lighting facilities have to be installed on the beam inside silo. While switches and power distribution cabinet are installed outside silo for safety and easy maintenance. The shell protection degree of them shall not be less than IP55, and their location and height have to meet design requirements.

3. Explosion proof design

Dust is inevitable in the process of grain processing and transportation, so we should pay attention to reduce electric sparks and temperature on the surface of equipment inside silo. The following measures are adoptable: avoid short circuit of electrical equipment; equip with ventilation system to reduce temperature in silo.

Electrical design shall be targeted and made on the basis of safety so as to ensure grain safety.

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